“Our Coley’s toxins are being used in the study of Immunotherapy Combination with Checkpoint Inhibitors.”
Our Coley’s toxins therapy touches all major facets of immunology and holds enormous clinical promise. Scores of clinical studies are aiming the immuno-stimulating power of adjuvants at tumors. Scientists are also developing approaches that could target a broad range of infectious agents. Studies have shown that the production of dendritic cells, also contribute to fever, the process by which the body provides potential immune reaction to eradicate disease cells. This awareness is inspiring dendritic-cell-based medical therapies that treat autoimmune and degenerative disorders – such as the Coley’s toxin.
There are several names for Coley’s toxins or Coley’s vaccine. The reason may lie in the difficulty of classifying such a substance under the view of the established medicine:– Coley’s vaccine is not a vaccine in the usual sense, namely that it prevents an infection. Rather it triggers an “immune-like” response, i.e. Coley’s behaves like an ordinary vaccine;– it induces an immune response, in this case against the cancer. In this sense, it predates current attempts to develop cancer vaccines. The term toxin is applied as Coley’s toxins contain both endotoxins and exotoxins.
Dendritic cells: A robust fever, which occurs in response to Coley fluid, generates inflammatory factors with co-stimulatory activity, which activate resting dendritic cells (DC), leading to the activation of anergic T cells, maybe accomplished by a second process, where a possible physical damage of cancer cells leads to a sudden supply of cancer antigens to DC.
Tumor Necrosis Factor and Interleukin: One of the agents in Coley’s Toxins that is thought to be biologically active is a lipopolysaccharide which causes fever. The resulting fever from the lipopolysaccaride is thought to increase lymphocyte activity and boosts tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Tsung and Norton in Surgical Oncology reported that the active agent was thought to be interleukin-12, rather than TNF.
Streptokinase: Another hypothesis argues that streptokinase (produced by bacteria of type “streptococcus” together with plasminogen from the patient) is the active agent of Coley’s toxins. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that streptokinase has been associated with successful treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans.
Anti-angiogenesis: In addition to the mechanisms above, Coley’s toxins might be anti-angiogenic – suppressing the formation of new blood vessels which are vital to the growth of tumors. However, angiogenesis is not biochemically caused by itself, but externally triggered.
PAMP: Recently (2008), an immunological explanation binding together immunological data with findings about spontaneous regression and epidemiological data indicating a lowered risk to develop cancer later after common infections, has been published. According to this hypothesis, pathogenic substances produced by bacteria, viruses, infectious fungi and other pathogens, but not human tissue, called ‘pathogen associated molecular pattern’ (PAMP) lead to activation and maturation of tumor-antigen loaded dendritic cells. One PAMP thought to play a major role is the unmethlyated CpG motif found in bacterial DNA. The CpG motif is recognized by toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) and can induce a strong TH1 response.
Availability: CHIPSA is the only experienced hospital facility (under doctor supervision) permitted to treat with the Coley’s Therapy toxin in North America.